OpenClinical logo

Medical terminologies

Medical terminologies: ICD
ICD
name The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems
summary International classification system for causes of death.

"The purpose of the ICD ... is to promote international comparability in the collection, classification, processing, and presentation of mortality statistics".
clinical focus Designed to support "the collection, classification, processing, and presentation of mortality statistics". Used to summarise the incidence of diseases and operations on national and worldwide levels.
developed by The United Nations World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, in collaboration with 10 international centres.
introduced In Europe, as the Bertillon Classification or International List of Causes of Death, in 1893. ICD-1 was introduced in the USA in 1900. New revisions have been released generally every ten years since then.
current versions ICD-10 The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, tenth revision, second edition, 2005 (available in electronic format).

Modifications of ICD-10 include:
  • ICD-10 CM International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification
  • ICD-10 PCS International Classification of Diseases 10th revision, Procedure Classification System.
  • ICD-9 was released in 1979. The first edition of ICD-10 was released in 1994
    background / derivation The history of the ICD extends back to the late 19th century, when the need for standardizing classification concepts and terminology was recognized by the medical community in Europe.
    features
  • ICD is divided into categories based on a five digit code (which limits the size of the vocabulary), where round numbers represent the more general concepts.
  • ICD-10 has some 8,000 cat- egories (ICD-9 had only 4,000) and 12,500 codes.
  • ICD in form is a strict hierarchy; code determines position in hierarchy.
  • Deaths are ranked on a list of 113 causes (except infant deaths, which are ranked separately on a list of 130 causes.
  • A selected list of 39 causes of death is used to show mortality data for geographic areas
  • standards

    "In practice, the ICD has become the international standard diagnostic classification for all general epidemiological and many health management purposes." [Gersenovic, 1995]

    in use ICD codes are used world-wide for morbidity and mortality statistics. They have been the most widely used codes in healthcare.

    "ICD-10 is used within the acute sector of the NHS and the classification codes are mandatory for use across England" [NHS].

    access  bullet  ICD-10 online (Version for 2003)  bullet  Licensing WHO classifications

    "Electronic and bound versions of ICD-10 can be purchased from WHO at www.who.int/whosis/icd10/; however, NCHS and the States are using a copy modified and corrected by NCHS. The NCHS version converts the English spellings to American spellings and incorporates changes made after the WHO version was published. A WHO copyright precludes NCHS from electronically distributing the ICD-10 version being used in the United States." [cdc.gov]

    In the UK, "NHS bodies are not required to apply for a licence and are permitted to reproduce ICD-10 codes for administrative purposes within the NHS only" (NHS}. ("NHS Connecting for Health holds the licence for the UK to use the ICD-10 codes within the NHS as the joint UK World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre for the Classification of Diseases" [NHS]).

    tools  bullet  ICD-10 online (Version for 2003)  bullet  Mycroft terminology browser from Apelon - includes ICD-9-CM. ONLY for use within the United States.  bullet  Free online searchable implemenetation of ICD-9-CM  bullet  Limited Trial of e-MDs Search ICD-9
    references
    Gersenovic M. The ICD family of classifications. Methods Inf Med 1995 Mar;34(1-2):172-5.

    [PubMed]   []

    " The history from the Sixth to the Ninth Revisions of the ICD is described. The 10th revision is presented as the 21st Century classification. The preparation of the ICD-10 included a long process with two expert committee meetings. A classification of diseases can be defined as a system of categories to which morbid entities are assigned according to established criteria. The purpose of the ICD is to permit the systematic analysis, interpretation and comparison of mortality and morbidity data collected in different countries or areas and at different times. In practice, the ICD has become the international standard diagnostic classification for all general epidemiological and many health management purposes. It was felt that the main ICD (the three- and four-character classification), covered by three volumes of ICD-10, could not incorporate all this additional information and remain accessible, and relevant to its traditional users, so the idea arose of a "family" of disease and health-related classifications, including volumes published separately form the main ICD, to be used as required. A statistical classification of diseases must be confined to a limited number of mutually exclusive categories, able to encompass the whole range of morbid condition, and must have well defined place in the list of categories. Consequently, throughout the classification, there will be residual categories for other and miscellaneous conditions that cannot be allocated to the more specific categories. As few conditions as possible should be classified to residual categories. Consequently, throughout the classification, there will be residual categories for other and miscellaneous conditions that cannot be allocated to the more specific categories... "

    International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Second Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2005.

    [WHO]   []

    " Volume 1
    The classification of diseases and related health problems in 22 chapters:

    1. Certain infectious and parasitic diseases
    2. Neoplasms
    3. Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism
    4. Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases
    5. Mental and behavioural disorders
    6. Diseases of the nervous system
    7. Diseases of the eye and adnexa
    8. Diseases of the ear and mastoid process
    9. Diseases of the circulatory system
    10. Diseases of the respiratory system
    11. Diseases of the digestive system
    12. Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
    13. Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
    14. Diseases of the genitourinary system
    15. Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium
    16. Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period
    17. Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities
    18. Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
    19. Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
    20. External causes of morbidity and mortality
    21. Factors influencing health status and contact with health services
    22. Codes for special purposes
    Volume 2: Instruction Manual
    Volume 3: Alphabetical Index "

    Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. New International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10): the history and impact. Brief. Mar 2001; no.41.

    []   [Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment]

    " The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a system developed collaboratively between the World Health Organization (WHO) and 10 international centers so that the medical terms reported by physicians, medical examiners, and coroners on death certificates can be grouped together for statistical purposes. The purpose of the ICD and of WHO sponsorship is to promote international comparability in the collection, classification, processing, and presentation of mortality statistics. Revisions of the ICD are implemented periodically so that the classification reflects advances in medical science. Since 1900, the ICD has been modified about once every 10 years, except for the 20-year interval between the last two revisions, ICD-9 and ICD-10. Effective with deaths occurring in 1999, the United States replaced ICD-9, in use for deaths from 1979 to 1998, with ICD-10. Publications showing mortality data coded under ICD-10 will differ substantially from those under ICD-9 because of changes in coding rules, changes in category names and ICD numbers, and changes in the tabulation lists used to group mortality data. This report will briefly review the history of ICD, highlight major changes in ICD-10, and discuss the statistical impact the revision will have on mortality analysis. "

    contact WHO headquarters
    Avenue Appia 20
    1211 Geneva 27
    Switzerland

    links  bullet  ICD / ICD-10  bullet  ICD-10 on US National Center for Health Statistics  bullet  History of the development of the ICD  bullet  The WHO Family of International Classifications  bullet  ICD introduction by Enrico Coiera (taken from Guide to Health Informatics, Arnold, 2003) (AHIC)
    acknowledgements
     
    page history
    Entry on OpenClinical: 15 July 2005
    Last main update: 29 July 2005

    Search this site
     

    Privacy policy User agreement Copyright Feedback

    Last modified:
    © Copyright OpenClinical 2002-2011