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Knowledge management is ... "the systematic process of identifying, capturing, and transferring information and knowledge people can use to create, compete, and improve" [American Productivity and Quality Center].

Introduction

OpenClinical focuses on methods and information technologies (such as knowledge-based decision support systems) capable of supporting knowledge management in healthcare. OpenClinical promotes methods and tools to

  • describe (e.g. in standard documentation and terminology)
  • capture (e.g. using specialised knowledge and guideline authoring tools)
  • represent (e.g. with formal knowledge representation methods)
  • disseminate (e.g. using electronic publishing and agent technologies)
  • make readily accessible (e.g. on the web)
  • support sharing of (e.g. using open source knowledge)
  • maintain (e.g. using knowledge authoring and editing software)
  • support reuse of clinical knowledge and data (e.g. with standard interchange formats)
references: general
A. Macintosh, I. Filby and J. Kingston. Knowledge Management Techniques: Teaching & Dissemination Concepts. International Journal of Human Computer Studies (Special Issue on Organizational Memories & Knowledge Management), vol. 51, no. 3, Academic Press, September 1999.

[Univ. of Edinburgh]

" This paper describes knowledge management teaching and dissemination concepts to support the training of professionals in an organisation to manage their knowledge assets. They are based on AIAIs experience of working with large organisations to establish a technical knowledge management framework and to support their personnel in implementing the framework. The concepts support organisations who embark on a knowledge management programme. They promote the importance of knowledge management and the awareness of how knowledge management can be accomplished within, and across, operational divisions; create an awareness of a framework to achieve knowledge management; and establish a group of personnel who have skills in knowledge management techniques to enable them to facilitate the development, maintenance, use and sharing of the organisations knowledge assets. The main objective is to ensure that knowledge management techniques are rolled out across the organisation. Importantly these concepts provide the organisation with the necessary training in the use of techniques to identify, analyse and manage knowledge assets. "
References: knowledge management in healthcare
J C Wyatt. Clinical Knowledge and Practice in the Information Age. Royal Society of Medicine Press, 2001.

[RSM - Overview]

"Contents; Section 1 - Improving your clinical knowledge: Keeping up: continuing education or lifelong learning?; Reading journals and monitoring current literature; Books and multimedia as reference material. Section 2 - Helping patients and peers to change: Improving information for patients; Practice guidelines and other support for clinical innovation. Section 3 - Intranets for knowledge access; The Internet and clinical knowledge; Clinical decision support systems. Conclusion - Managing explicit and tacit knowledge in health services. "

Healthcare Knowledge Management: Issues, Advances and Successes, Rajeev Bali and Ashish Dwivedi (editors). Springer, September 2006.

[]   [Springer]

Bali and Dwivedi book cover

"Healthcare practitioners and managers increasingly find themselves in clinical situations where they have to think fast and process myriad diagnostic test results, medications and past treatment responses in order to make decisions. Effective problem solving in the clinical environment or classroom simulated lab depends on a healthcare professional's immediate access to fresh information. Unable to consult a library for information, the healthcare practitioner must learn to effectively manage knowledge while thinking on their toes.

"Knowledge Management (KM) holds the key to this dilemma in the healthcare environment. KM places value on the tacit knowledge that individuals hold within an institution and often makes use of IT to free up the collective wisdom of individuals within an organization. Healthcare Knowledge Management: Issues, Advances and Successes will explore the nature of KM within contemporary healthcare institutions and associated organizations. It will provide readers with an understanding of approaches to the critical nature and use of knowledge by investigating healthcare-based KM systems. Designed to demystify the KM process and demonstrate its applicability in healthcare, this text offers contemporary and clinically-relevant lessons for future organizational implementations.

"The editors of this book have assembled a group of international contributors that reflects the diversity of KM applications in the healthcare sector. While many KM texts suffer from pitching theoretical issues at too technical a level, Healthcare Knowledge Management approaches the topic from the more versatile "twin" perspectives of both academia and commerce. This unique text is integrative in nature – a practical guide to managing and developing KM that is underpinned by theory and research.

ToC:

"Building New Healthcare Management Paradigms: A Case for Healthcare Knowledge Management
Clinical Knowledge Management - A Model for Primary Care
Role of Information Professionals as Intermediaries for Knowledge Management in Evidence Based Health Care
Healthcare Knowledge Management and Information Technology: A Systems Understanding
Medical Technology Management in Hospital Certification in Mexico
Healthcare Knowledge Sharing: Purpose, Practices and Prospects
Healthcare Knowledge Management: Incorporating the Tools, Technologies, Strategies and Process of KM to Effect Superior Health Care Delivery
The Hidden Power of Social Networks and Knowledge Sharing in Health Care
Constructing Healthcare Knowledge Narratives in Health Care
ASP Technology in the Healthcare Environment
Secured Electronic Patient Records Content Exploitation
Health Knowledge Management in Practice: Knowledge Management and the National Health Services
Knowledge Management and the NHS in Scotland
Knowledge Management for Primary Health Care Services
We Haven't Got a Plan, So What Can Go Wrong?
Healthcare Knowledge Management in the Perinatal Care Environment".

Bali, Rajeev K (editor). Clinical knowledge management : opportunities and challenges. Idea Group Publishing, 2005

[Idea Group - book details]   [Idea Group - book Preface]   [Free excerpt: Chapter 1 (Issues in Clinical Knowledge Management: Revisiting Healthcare Management)]

Bali KM bookcover

" The key to the success of the clinical healthcare sector in the 21st century is to achieve an effective integration of technology with human-based clinical decision-making processes. By doing so, healthcare institutions are free to disseminate acquired knowledge in a manner that ensures its availability to other healthcare stakeholders for such areas as preventative and operative medical diagnosis and treatment. This is of paramount importance as healthcare and clinical management continues its growth as a global priority area.

"A few basic statistics: the average physician spends about 25 percent of his or her time managing information and is required to learn approximately two million clinical specifics (The Knowledge Management Centre, 2000); in the UK, each doctor receives about 15 kg of clinical guidelines per annum (Wyatt, 2000); up to 98000 patients die every year as a result of preventable medical errors-in the USA, it is estimated that the financial cost of these errors is between $37.6 billion to $50 billion (Duff, 2002); adverse drug reactions result in more than 770,000 injuries and deaths each year (Taylor, Manzo, & Sinnett, 2002); in 1995, more than 5 percent of patients had adverse reactions to drugs while under medical care-43 percent of which were serious, life threatening, or fatal (Davenport & Glaser, 2002). To further compound these pressures, biomedical literature is doubling every 19 years. These statistics illustrate how difficult it is for healthcare institutions and stakeholders to successfully meet information needs that are growing at an exponential rate.

"Knowledge Management (KM) as a discipline is said not to have a commonly accepted or de facto definition. However, some common ground has been established which covers the following points. KM is a multi-disciplinary paradigm (Gupta, Iyer & Aronson, 2000) that often uses technology to support the acquisition, generation, codification, and transfer of knowledge in the context of specific organisational processes. Knowledge can either be tacit or explicit (explicit knowledge typically takes the form of company documents and is easily available, whilst tacit knowledge is subjective and cognitive). As tacit knowledge is often stored in the minds of healthcare professionals, the ultimate objective of KM is to transform tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge to allow effective dissemination. The definition of KM by Gupta, Iyer, & Aronson (2000) is one such description amongst many--whichever KM definition one accepts, one unmovable truth remains: healthcare KM has made a profound impact on the international medical scene. ... " (From the Preface)

Syed Sibte Raza Abidi. Healthcare Knowledge Management: The Art of the Possible. In David Riano (Eds) K4CARE, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence LNAI 4924, Springer, 2008, pp 1-21.

[]   [Dalhousie University, CA]

"Healthcare knowledge management is an active, yet not a well characterized research topic. In this chapter, we attempt to characterize healthcare knowledge management and highlight the practical aspects of healthcare knowledge management vis-à-vis knowledge-centric services that aim to improve healthcare delivery and health outcomes. We investigate healthcare knowledge management from various perspectives--such as epistemological, organizational learning, knowledge-theoretic and functional. From an epistemological perspective we elicit the different types of healthcare knowledge and the heterogeneous modalities representing it. From a functional perspective we present a suite of healthcare knowledge management services that aim to assist healthcare stakeholders. From a knowledge-theoretic perspective, we present the frontiers of healthcare knowledge management, in particular for patient management through decision support and care planning via a Semantic Web based healthcare knowledge management framework. We conclude by highlighting the role and future outlook of healthcare knowledge management."

Bali RK, Dwivedi A. Clinical knowledge management: an overview of current understanding. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2005;114:315-8.

[PubMed]   []

" This chapter outlines contributions to a workshop for ICMCC 2005. We details some of the central issues surrounding the incorporation of the Knowledge Management (KM) paradigm for the healthcare and clinical sectors. The complex nature of KM is discussed, together with some essential theories and some contemporary applications of the tools and techniques are presented. "

Wyatt JC. Knowledge for the clinician 10. Managing explicit and tacit knowledge. R Soc Med.2001; 94: 6-9.

[PubMed]

" "

References - in languages other than English
R. Bravo. La gestión del conocimiento en Medicina: a la búsqueda de la información perdida [Knowledge management in medicine: in search of lost information]. Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra, editada por el Departamento de Salud del Gobierno de Navarra, vol 25 no. 3 sep-dic 2003 pp255-272.

[ANALES]

RESUMEN: "En este artículo se realiza una revisión breve de la aplicación de la gestión del conocimiento en el campo de las ciencias de la salud. Esta nueva corriente nacida en el ámbito empresarial pretende hacerse un hueco en unas disciplinas caracterizadas por un uso intensivo de la información y que tradicionalmente habían asumido muchos de los presupuestos presentados como novedosos por estas corrientes. Se comentan los desafíos y problemas que la gestión del conocimiento presenta en ciencias de la salud y, centrándose en la gestión del conocimiento explícito, se describen algunas soluciones actualmente en desarrollo."

SUMMARY: "This paper offers a brief review of the application of knowledge management in the field of the health sciences. This new current, which emerged in the business sphere, is seeking to win itself a space in disciplines characterised by their intensive use of information and which had traditionally assumed many of the proposals presented as novelties by these currents. The challenges and problems that knowledge management poses in the health sciences are discussed and, focusing on explicit knowledge management, solutions that are currently being developed are described."

Greenes RA. Future of medical knowledge management and decision support. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;80:29-44.

[PubMed]   []

" Attempts to predict the future are typically off the mark. Beyond the challenges of forecasting the stock market or the weather, dramatic instances of notoriously inaccurate prognostications have been those by the US patent office in the late 1800s about the future of inventions, by Thomas Watson in the 1930s about the market for large computers, and by Bill Gates in the early 1990s about the significance of the Internet. When one seeks to make predictions about health care, one finds that, beyond the usual uncertainties regarding the future, additional impediments to forecasting are the discontinuities introduced by advances in biomedical science and technology, the impact of information technology, and the reorganizations and realignments attending various approaches to health care delivery and finance. Changes in all three contributing areas themselves can be measured in "PSPYs", or paradigm shifts per year. Despite these risks in forecasting, I believe that certain trends are sufficiently clear that I am willing to venture a few predictions. Further, the predictions I wish to make suggest a goal for the future that can be achieved, if we can align the prevailing political, financial, biomedical, and technical forces toward that end. Thus, in a sense this is a call to action, to shape the future rather than just let it happen. This chapter seeks to lay out the direction we are heading in knowledge management and decision support, and to delineate an information technology framework that appears desirable. I believe the framework to be discussed is of importance to the health care-related knowledge management and decision making activities of the consumer and patient, the health care provider, and health care delivery organizations and insurers. The approach is also relevant to the other dimensions of academic health care institution activities, notably the conduct of research and the processes of education and learning. "

links
General KM in healthcare
 bullet  Specialist library for Knowledge Management within the UK NHS National electronic Library for Health  bullet  knowledgeboard.com - a "portal for the European KM industry"  bullet  Knowledge Management Resource Center (Bio-IT World Inc.)  bullet  Knowledge management glossary (School of Information Management and Systems, UC Berkeley)  bullet  en français  Knowledge management glossaire (Nemesia.com)  bullet  Specialist library for Knowledge Management within the National Library for Health (NLH)  bullet  Cochrane Collaboration: "Preparing, maintaining and promoting the accessibility of systematic reviews of the effects of health care interventions"  bullet  National Institute for Clinical Excellence (UK NHS)  bullet  University College, London, Knowledge Management Centre publications by Jeremy Wyatt
acknowledgements
 
Entry on OpenClinical: 2001
Last main update: 11 February 2010
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